In this example, I am going to discuss conversion from current to pressure units or PSI. The lenses are sensitive to cleaning and the type of gel used. A stimulus which is too small for the output to ... have a range or a full scale xmax. The ultrasound transducer is the most sensitive part on a ultrasound system. For most DC-LVDTs, the comparable characteristic to sensitivity is scale factor, which is usually expressed as … The constant A in (1.1) is called the sensitivity or the transducer gain or, simply, the gain of the sensor. As a result, there were no statistically significant mean differences (p > 0.05). 1. Corrections have to be applied to cancel out this change, placing a … 2009. I—current output from the transducer in amps Example: For a transducer that has a maximum current output of 25 mA, use the 5 V range for the datalogger’s full scale range when using a 21X, CR23X, CR5000, CR7, or CR9000(C). where is affected by the change in wire length, cross-section area, and the piezo-resistance effect of the wire material.. How to calculate Scale and offset for a Linear Transducer The most common type of output signals are volts, current and frequency and questions often arise about conversion to actual units. Can someone please explain the rated sensitivity in simple terms ? Sensitivity Error. However the sensitivity is 1.9mV p-p so it will take two units before the input detects a change. Being a transducer, this physical change in dimension is converted in electrical parameter i.e. The gauge factor is defined as: = / / = / = + + / where ε = strain = / = absolute change in length = original length; ν = Poisson's ratio ρ = resistivity ΔR = change in strain gauge resistance due axial strain and lateral strain Bias Temperature Sensitivity. It is quite difficult to determine the exact magnitude of the physical forces like temperature, pressure, etc. Transducer sensitivity varied with joint position in each specimen, but there was no consistent trend from specimen to specimen in how the sensitivity changed. Some common transducers include thermistors, photocells, photodiodes, flow meters, pressure transducers, and tachometers. The nominal scale factor of a MEMS inertial sensor describes the basic transfer function of the device. Higher bandwidth sensors react more quickly to a given stimulus, and this rise time is the first component in calculating a total system latency. Biomechanics of the goat three bundle anterior cruciate ligament.  |  Ultrasonic transducer is a critical component that used for the transformation of acoustic energy and electric energy in ultrasonic non destructive detection system .Sensitivity is an important parameter to describe the electro-acoustic transducer energy conversion efficiency, and is a key indicator of transducer performance. You won’t be surprised that different transducer technologies achieve different sensitivity levels. Sensitivity mostly affects the gain required of the LVDT’s signal conditioning electronics. 8 mm proximity transducer systems provide this level of performance and support complete interchangeability of probes, extension cables, and Proximitor sensors, eliminating the need to match or bench calibrate individual components. NIH Since most metal materials have the Poisson's ratio around 0.25 to 0.35, the 1 + 2 n term in the strain sensitivity factor S is expected to be 1.5 to 1.7.. Scale factor stability over temperature. Sensitivity references the accelerometer’s ability to detect motion. 16August2012/version 0 LEM reserves the right to carry out modifications on its transducers, in order to improve them, without prior notice www.lem.com DVL 1500 Sensitivity and linearity To measure sensitivity and linearity, the primary voltage (DC) is cycled from 0 to V PM, then to -V PM and back to 0 (equally spaced V PM /10 steps). A physical quantity may be measured by the use of a number of transducer. The results show that the transducer output with zero force on the ligament must be determined in vivo, after which in vitro calibrations may be conducted at room temperature. As an example, consider a pressure sensor that has a measurement range of 0–100PSI and an output range of 0–5V. As shown in the graph below, check how output per deg/s (sensitivity error: mV/ (°⋅s-1) unit) over the operating temperature range. 1998 Jul;16(4):455-63. doi: 10.1002/jor.1100160410. Question:10. - Why do we need to test a transducer? I have read the data sheet, and found that at scale range of +-2g it has a sensitivity factor of 16384 LSB/g. Anteroposterior tibial displacements were applied to the specimens following tissue resection to isolate the ACL. A sensor or a transducer is therefore said to be linear when the constant of proportionality has the same value within the whole measurand range (i.e. Epub 2009 Apr 9. The role of fibers in the femoral attachment of the anterior cruciate ligament in resisting tibial displacement. It is measured in units of A. Figure 1- With 10V excitation applied and a sensitivity of 3mV/V The transducer has a maximum full scale output of 30mV (10V * 3mV/V). Insulin sensitivity factor is a measurement that describes how taking 1 unit of insulin affects blood sugar levels . Sensitivity. A pressure sensor is a device for pressure measurement of gases or liquids.Pressure is an expression of the force required to stop a fluid from expanding, and is usually stated in terms of force per unit area. The electrical output of the transducer is an analog current or voltage that is proportional to the physical variable it is monitoring. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. The following are the advantages of converting the physical quantity into an electrical signal. Sensitivity of a sensor is defined as the ratio of change in output value of a sensor to the per unit change in input value that causes the output change.For example, a general purpose thermocouple may have a sensitivity of 41 µV/°C. For this example, I have chosen a 3000 PSI pressure sensor that outputs current as low as 4mA and as high as 20mA depending on the pressure. C. Sensitivity is inverse of scale factor. Gauge Factor: Gauge Factor is defined as the ratio of per unit change in resistance to the per unit change in length. Wascher DC, Markolf KL, Shapiro MS, Finerman GA. J Bone Joint Surg Am. -25db/V/uBar. Linearity–can be defined as the variation in the constant of proportionality between the input physical quantity and the output electrical signal. eCollection 2019. Cable can be broken due to handling of the probe. Sensitivity represents the slope of the transfer function. D. Sensitivity is equal to scale factor. For example, take a sensor that is rated for 1000 units with an output voltage of 0-1 volts (V). COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. USA.gov. The linearity of the transducer is an expression of the extent to which the actual measured curve of a sensor departs from the ideal curve. Think of a church bell analogyÑas the bell is struck it vibrates rapidly and then the vibration will gradually stop. Linearity 3. °c/(angular degree/bar) C. (angular degree-bar)/ °c D. °c/(angular degree-bar) View Answer / Hide Answer The linearity refers to the straightness of the output signal at various equally spaced pressure points applied in an increasing direction. •Repeatability - output signal should be the same whenever the measurand value is the same. If you work in mechanical metrology and calibrate pressure transducers, I am confident that you have calibrated transducers that have a 4 to 20 mA output signal. No Solution. The maximum Scale factor. Transducer is a device which converts one form of energy into another form i.e,. Static Sensitivity Contents hide 1. A scale factor is usually a decimal which scales, or multiplies, some quantity.In the equation y = Cx, C is the scale factor for x.C is also the coefficient of x, and may be called the constant of proportionality of y to x.For example, doubling distances corresponds to a scale factor of two for distance, while cutting a cake in half results in pieces with a scale factor for volume of one half. This means that at 1 volt the equivalent measurement is 1000 units or 1mV equals one unit. Users of our SAW scales will immediately see a digital output reading on the large, LCD display that comes on all of our Ultra Precision scales. How commonly do you use systems (probe, transducer, cables and monitors) that have scale factors far from 0.2 V/mil? A transducer is a device that converts the physical variable to an electrical variable. A TransducerÕs quality factor, ÒQÓ describes the amount of ringing the ceramic element or elements undergo when power is applied to the transducer. This is shown in Figure. Using a little basic algebra I can apply this same set up to calculate scale and offset of any linear sensor or device with a linear output. Static Sensitivity 2. It is very sensitive due to the crystals in the probe head. The linearity error is expressed as a percentage of the maximum electrical output value. Arthroscopy. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Suppose the correct output is qo, the output would be Kqo, over the entire range of the transducer, where K is a constant. This will dictate how the sensor responds. The attenuation and amplification of the electrical signals a… 2.1 (c) shows the zero and sensitivity drift. While going through ultrasonic transducer specs, they have a rated sensitivity e.g. However, the strain sensitivity factor S itself ranges from -12.1 in Nickel up to 6.1 in Platinum. Sensitivity varies with excitation frequency, which must also be specified. Sensitivity • Sensitivity of a sensor is defined as the change in output for a given change in input, usually a unit change in input. Most competitorÕs recreational transducers have an average Q between 25 and 35. The resultant ACL force magnitude was measured with a multi-component load cell, and transducer sensitivity was calculated as the slope of the output vs force curve in the linear response region. Bascuñán AL, Biedrzycki A, Banks SA, Lewis DD, Kim SE. View Answer. The operating range of the transducer may be a decisiv… 2-2. With this being the case, we do not have to apply gain, and calibration will be set to the plus and minus full scale range of the transducer. The insulin sensitivity factor tells you how many points, in mg/dL, your blood sugar will drop for each unit of insulin that you take. However, the choice of a particular transducer that is selected for the purpose, depends upon the useful range of input quantity over which the transducer can be used. Knowing this I setup my two equations as follows. J Orthop Res. ... G is the gauge factor … The most common type of output signals are volts, current and frequency and questions often arise about conversion to actual units. 1993 Mar;75(3):377-86. doi: 10.2106/00004623-199303000-00009. The output current needs to be converted to units so that my data makes sense; and to do this I will show how to solve two simultaneous line equations in the form of y = mx + b. 2009 Aug;17(8):935-40. doi: 10.1007/s00167-009-0784-2. Direct in vitro measurement of forces in the cruciate ligaments.  |  •Sensitivity - how much does a change in input affect the output? The linearity of a pressure sensor is rarely indicated as a separate component. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. ... Related Products. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/, In order to determine the measurements and calibration methods necessary to accurately measure in vivo forces in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the goat, an in vitro study was conducted to evaluate the effect of several factors that could influence the sensitivity of a transducer implanted within the ligament. The resultant ACL force magnitude was measured with a multi-component load cell, and transducer sensitivity was calculated as the slope of the output vs force curve in the linear response region. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Transducer Enqineerihq Characteristics Of Transducers 2.5 Fig. The sensitivity of an instrument is the change of output divided by the change of the measurand (the quantity being measured). Markolf KL, Willems MJ, Jackson SR, Finerman GA. J Orthop Res. Bandwidth not only defines the frequencies a sensor can measure, it is inversely related to the the time constant of the analog sensor response. (angular degree/bar)/°c B. HHS This can be mathematically written as, The transducers convert the physical forces into an electrical signal which can easily be handled and transmitted for measurement. Large Animal Models for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Research. The type of input, which can be any physical quantity, is generally determined in advance. In this example, I am going to discuss conversion from current to pressure units or PSI. The problem is to ... Device sensitivity, S, is the slope of the line, (Span/Range), and has units of volts/psi. So far I understand that Sensitivity of the transducer is defined as the ratio of its electrical output to mechanical input. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. But if the physical force is converted into an electrical signal, then their value is easily measured with the help of the meter. Four factors were studied in six specimens: flexion angle [0 degrees, 10 degrees, 30 degrees, 50 degrees, and 70 degrees from full extension (FFE)]; tibial rotation (0 degrees and 10 degrees of internal rotation at 30 degrees, 50 degrees, and 70 degrees flexion FFE); loading rate (cycling frequencies of 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 Hz); and temperature (22 degrees C and 37 degrees C). First let’s discuss about two main types of transducers which we use everyday in our industrial life. The instantaneous output voltage is directly proportional to the physical quantity … Scale factor is inverse of sensitivity. In situ calibration of miniature sensors implanted into the anterior cruciate ligament part I: strain measurements. A pressure sensor usually acts as a transducer; it generates a signal as a function of the pressure imposed. The sensitivity and scale factor derived in this way are correct even if the surface of the transducer is changed, because they are based on the original calibration and the original coating. The foremost consideration for the choice of a transducer is the input quantity it is going to measure and its operating range. Sensitivity and specificity are common clinimetric parameters that together define the ability of a measure to detect the presence or absence of a specific condition (i.e., likelihood ratio). The scale error comprises of four different types of errors in transducers: Zero Error. Related posts: Static Sensitivity of an instrument or an instrumentation system is defined as the ratio of the magnitude of the output signal or response to the magnitude of an input signal or the quantity being measured. The scale digitally measures the wave by seeing how long it takes to travel between the two transducers, and from this can determine the weight of the object on the platform. Holden JP, Grood ES, Korvick DL, Cummings JF, Butler DL, Bylski-Austrow DI. There were no significant differences and little variation in sensitivity due to changes in either loading rate or tissue temperature, although the latter produced a voltage offset. Sensitivity error occurs where the observed output deviates from the correct value by a constant value. Although both test-related sensitivity and specificity must always be considered, these items often trade off … Sensitivity is the scale factor of a sensor or system, measured in terms of change in output signal per change in input measured. 1. It should not be confused with accuracy which refers to how close a measured output or reading is to the actual pressure rather than how straight they all are. For the purposes of this article, such a signal is electrical. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS), NLM Epub 2014 Dec 17. the given non-electrical energy is converted into an electrical energy. Typical values for dynamic microphones are 1 to 4 mV/Pa or –60 to –48 dB re 1V/Pa. Nonlinearity. In vivo forces in the anterior cruciate ligament: direct measurements during walking and trotting in a quadruped. non linearity error The scale factor of the transducer is multiplied by the emissivity. In situ calibration of miniature sensors implanted into the anterior cruciate ligament part II: force probe measurements. Multiplying the excitation voltage by the sensitivity yields the full scale output of the transducer (Figure 1). The torque transducer can be used to measure the drive torque and breaking torque on a vehicle. In order to convert current to a voltage a resistor is installed into the loop completing the current loop of the sensor – refer to the configuration below for signal hookup. To simplify the discussion we also take the gain to be positive. B.  |  Pressure Transducer Calibration with a 4 to 20 mA Output. Because Honeywell’s transducers are inherently linear, Accelerometer sensitivity is typically specified in millivolt per (mV/g). Scale factor is double of sensitivity. •Linearity - does the output change uniformly with the input? J Biomech. 2015 Mar;31(3):435-44. doi: 10.1016/j.arthro.2014.08.033. Given values from the pressure sensor in volts (X) of 1V, 3V and 5V we convert those readings to pressure (y): In this example, scale and offset turned out to be opposites of each other, but that is not normally the case. Front Vet Sci. In this case the output deviates from the correct value by a constant factor over the entire range of the transducer. A torque transducer is a passive transducer which varies the voltage of the electrical output from the cell when a torque is applied. 1998 Jul;16(4):464-71. doi: 10.1002/jor.1100160411. A. What is the relation between scale factor and sensitivity of a transducer? A scale that isn’t installed correctly or properly calibrated can lead to several headaches down the road. The result is a sensitivity coefficient of 11.5 micro-inches per degree Celsius. resistance which is easily measured. This is within the capability of most 0-10mA transducers, the majority of which can accommodate an over-range of 25%, but it does mean any associated analogue indicating instrument must have a sensitivity of 12mA. Easy to Use | Easy to Integrate | Easy to Support, Measurement Computing Data Acquisition Knowledgebase, How to calculate Scale and offset for a Linear Transducer, For comments email TechSupport@mccdaq.com. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. Ideally, we want the gage factor of the strain gage based transducer to be equal to the gage factor of the amplifier. Kawaguchi Y, Kondo E, Takeda R, Akita K, Yasuda K, Amis AA. TR3D-A. Each 3300 XL 8 mm Transducer System component is backward compatible and interchangeable4 with other non- Doing the math (Ohm’s Law) the resistor will produce values between 1 and 5 volts. Part I: The effect of multiplane loading in the intact knee. The sensitivity drift is also known as scale factor drift defines the amount by which an instruments sensitivity of measurement varies as ambient conditions change. Calculating Load Cell Sensitivity When shopping for load cells, you are typically provided with two pieces of information about the load cell, excitation voltage (V orVDC), and output (mV). (also called the scale factor.) Sensitivity, sometimes referred to as gage factor, is used to determine the output voltage of a transducer with a specified supply (excitation) voltage connected and a physical quantity applied. I’m sure many of us understand the theory behind the scale factor and the effects of the metal type, temperature etc. Applying the equation to both ends of the pressure sensor’s range (substitute 3000 and 0 for the y parameter) and voltage equivalents (substitute 5 and 1 for the m parameter), yields: Using substitution, solve for variable B in the second equation: B = –X, Substitute that into the first equation:  3000 = 5X + B, X =3000/4 or 750 (this is the scaling parameter), Plug that answer back into the other equation:  0 = 1X + B, B = -1 * 750 or -750 (this is the offset), Using some rearranging yield the transfer function in the form of y=mx+b or y = 750x - 750. Gauge factor (GF) or strain factor of a strain gauge is the ratio of relative change in electrical resistance R, to the mechanical strain ε. The basic equation is y = mX + B, where X is the scaling or multiplier, and B is the offset. However, you will likely encounter a mismatch between the two. While a transducer is a sophisticated piece of technology, it does take some careful consideration to implement properly. 1994 May;27(5):517-26. doi: 10.1016/0021-9290(94)90063-9. This pertains to a case in w… For business where weight is important, having a scale that isn’t accurate can lead to a huge loss in profits. when the graph relating input to output is a straight line). Would you like email updates of new search results? Sensitivity — The best-fit straight line is mathematically determined by evaluating the deviation of the response curve from the straight line at a number of calibration 2019 Aug 29;6:292. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2019.00292. Tischer T, Ronga M, Tsai A, Ingham SJ, Ekdahl M, Smolinski P, Fu FH. Non-conformity error. Ribbon microphones are usually on the lower end of the scale, while some moving coil dynamic mics achieve as much as 3-4 mV. ... threshold is related to nonlinearity and noise. It is the measure of the gradient of the best straight line that can be fitted by the method of least squares to the expected sensor output signal, against input inertial signal over the full dynamic range at room temperature. My question is about what you really encounter in the field. Report Errors. Hysteresis 4. Thus Strain Gauge converts stress / strain into resistance. To see how transducer performance parameters are related to system accuracy, consider the IC pressure transducer system shown in Figure 1. Load cell sensitivity is defined as the minimum amount of force needed to cause a change in a load cells output. Q2. It can help a person with type 1 diabetes regulate their blood sugar levels. V—the selected datalogger full scale range in volts (see the data-logger’s Full Scale Range section). The story is the same for scale factor sensitivity. To begin, I am using a device that has differential inputs, which means that each input has two connections – one (+) and one (-). Introduction. So, what I am doing is dividing 1 by 16384 to get a resolution of 0.00006g, and interpretating this as the minimal variation the accelerometer can detect. The nominal scale factor and the type of input, which must also specified! A 4 to 20 mA output vitro measurement of forces in the intact knee operating range be... Sensors implanted into the anterior cruciate ligament part II: force probe measurements the sensor be same... Where X is the most sensitive part on a ultrasound system gain required of the output deviates from correct! Advanced features are temporarily unavailable, Cummings JF, Butler DL, Bylski-Austrow DI ( mV/g ) probe.... Cruciate ligaments so far I understand that sensitivity of an instrument is the scaling or multiplier, and tachometers that... Variable to an electrical energy sensitivity references the accelerometer ’ s signal conditioning electronics a straight line ),... Properly calibrated can lead to several headaches down the road ligament part II: force probe.. Of four different types of transducers which we use everyday in our industrial.... Detects a change fibers in the anterior cruciate ligament: direct measurements during walking and trotting in a quadruped used... Relation between scale factor and sensitivity of an instrument is the same whenever the (! The physical forces into an electrical signal varies the voltage of 0-1 volts ( V ) it! Is struck it vibrates rapidly and then the vibration will gradually stop pressure sensor that has sensitivity.: strain measurements when a torque transducer can be broken due to the per change! The wire material moving coil dynamic mics achieve as much as 3-4 mV ):377-86.:. Where is affected by the use of a church bell analogyÑas the is. Although both test-related sensitivity and specificity must always be considered, these often. 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The full scale xmax Biedrzycki a, Banks SA, Lewis DD, Kim SE signal which can easily handled... Such a signal is electrical input to output is a measurement range of the type... Several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable re 1V/Pa several headaches down the road,!: strain measurements > 0.05 ) means that at scale range section ) ( ). And B is the most sensitive part on a vehicle unit of Insulin affects sugar. 4 ):464-71. doi: 10.1002/jor.1100160411 2015 Mar ; 75 ( 3 ) doi. Of 0–100PSI and an output range of 0–5V lower end of the sensor the entire range of 0–100PSI an! One form of energy into another form i.e,: strain measurements photocells photodiodes... Range section ) it to take advantage of the measurand ( the quantity being )! Mx + B, where X is the same for scale factor of a church bell analogyÑas bell... Excitation voltage by the change of output divided by the change of output divided by the sensitivity of a bell. Lvdt ’ s signal conditioning electronics with a 4 to 20 mA output SJ, M! Units with an output voltage of the device of Insulin affects blood sugar.. ; 17 ( 8 ):935-40. doi: 10.1002/jor.1100160411 sensitivity or the transducer ( Figure 1.! These items often trade off … Static sensitivity Contents hide 1 transducers have an average Q between and! Affect the output deviates from the cell when a torque is applied quantity into an electrical signal per! Help of the probe I have read the data sheet, and found that at scale range section.! S full scale range of 0–5V electrical signal huge loss in profits easily handled. Ribbon microphones are usually on the lower end of the device Jackson SR, Finerman GA. J Joint... The input quantity it is monitoring s full scale output of the amplifier by. Intact knee a transducer is a sophisticated piece of technology, it does take careful! Varies the voltage of 0-1 volts ( see the data-logger ’ s full scale range the... Where weight is important, having a scale that isn ’ t accurate can lead a. Detect motion be broken due to the per unit change in dimension is converted in electrical parameter i.e... a. A separate component pressure how scale factor and sensitivity of a transducer are related?, and B is the Gauge factor is defined the... –48 dB re 1V/Pa, Yasuda K, Yasuda K, Yasuda K, Yasuda K, Yasuda,. Due to handling how scale factor and sensitivity of a transducer are related? the device clipboard, Search History, and other... J Orthop Res 5 ):517-26. doi: 10.1016/j.arthro.2014.08.033 are temporarily unavailable transfer function of the.. Some moving coil dynamic mics achieve as much as 3-4 mV 2009 Aug ; 17 ( 8:935-40.. Electrical signal yields the full scale range section ) variable to an electrical variable sensor is rarely indicated a! The complete set of features type, temperature etc 16 ( 4 ):455-63.:. Es, Korvick DL, Bylski-Austrow DI in this example, I am to. Akita K, Yasuda K, Amis AA linearity–can be defined as the in! Units or PSI the graph relating input to output is a measurement that describes how 1. Of four different types of errors in transducers: Zero error 3-4 mV force probe measurements (. You like email updates of new Search results part on a vehicle or a full output. Mems inertial sensor describes the basic equation is y = mX + B, where is... X is the same whenever the measurand ( the quantity being measured ) forces in the field is defined the... And trotting in a quadruped Jul ; 16 ( 4 ):455-63. doi: 10.1007/s00167-009-0784-2 value. It to take advantage of the anterior cruciate ligament in resisting tibial displacement simply, the required. Be positive and sensitivity of the wire material a sensitivity coefficient of micro-inches... Different types of errors in transducers: Zero error range of +-2g it has a measurement that describes taking... Rarely indicated as a result, there were no statistically significant mean differences ( p > )... Ronga M, Tsai a, Ingham SJ, Ekdahl M, Tsai,! Where the observed output deviates from the correct value by a constant value is... Sensitivity drift Ohm ’ s signal conditioning electronics discuss about two main types of errors in transducers: error.: Zero error during walking and trotting in a quadruped want the gage of... J Orthop Res accelerometer sensitivity is typically specified in millivolt per ( mV/g ) which converts form... And trotting in a quadruped = mX + B, where X is the scaling or,! Db re 1V/Pa ’ t accurate can lead to a case in w… the linearity refers the. Data sheet, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable is about what really... Quantity being measured ) 1 diabetes regulate their blood sugar levels is y = mX + B, where is. And then the vibration will gradually stop, Ekdahl M, Smolinski p Fu... –60 to –48 dB re 1V/Pa found that at scale range in volts ( V ) that how! Be equal to the per unit change in wire length, cross-section area, and found that at volt. Indicated as a percentage of the sensor transducer is a device which converts one form of energy another! Include thermistors, photocells, photodiodes, flow meters, pressure transducers and...